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[Approval] Mitochondrial transplantation for myocardial protection in ex-situ-perfused hearts donated after circulatory death

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J Heart Lung Transplant. 2020 Jun 29:S1053-2498(20)31625-9. doi: 10.1016/j.healun.2020.06.023. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Donation after circulatory death (DCD) offers an additional source of cardiac allografts, potentially allowing expansion of the donor pool, but is limited owing to the effects of ischemia. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of mitochondrial transplantation to enhance myocardial function of DCD hearts.

METHODS: Circulatory death was induced in Yorkshire pigs (40-50 kg, n = 29) by a cessation of mechanical ventilation. After 20 minutes of warm ischemia, cardioplegia was administered. The hearts were then reperfused on an ex-situ blood perfusion system. After 15 minutes of reperfusion, hearts received either vehicle alone (vehicle ; n = 6) received a second injection of mitochondria (5 × 109 in 10 ml) after 2 hours of ex-situ heart perfusion and reperfused for an additional 2 hours. A Sham group (sham hearts; n = 6) did not undergo any warm ischemia.

RESULTS: At the end of 4 hours of reperfusion, MT and MTS groups showed a significantly increased left ventricle/ventricular peak developed pressure (p = 0.002), maximal left ventricle/ventricular pressure rise (p < 0.001), fractional shortening (p < 0.001), and myocardial oxygen consumption (p = 0.004) compared with VEH. Infarct size was significantly decreased in MT and MTS groups compared with VEH (p < 0.001). No differences were found in arterial lactate levels among or within groups throughout reperfusion.

CONCLUSIONS: Mitochondrial transplantation significantly preserves myocardial function and oxygen consumption in DCD hearts, thus providing a possible option for expanding the heart donor pool.

PMID:32703639 | DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2020.06.023

[Approval] Machine perfusion of donor heart with normothermic blood versus hypothermic HTK in preserving coronary endothelium in a porcine model of DCD

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Ann Palliat Med. 2020 Jul;9(4):1476-1487. doi: 10.21037/apm-20-131. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both machine perfusion (MP) of donor hearts with autologous blood and crystalloid perfusates have advantages and disadvantages. Currently, which of the aforementioned preservation strategies can better preserve the coronary endothelium has not yet been determined. We aim to compare the impact of hypothermic continuous MP with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution versus normothermic continuous MP with autologous blood on coronary endothelium in a porcine ex vivo model of donation following circulatory death (DCD).

METHODS: DCD pigs underwent circulatory arrest via asphyxiation followed by 30-minute warm ischemia time. Donor hearts were preserved with either hypothermic MP with HTK solution (MP + HTK group; 4 ℃; n=6), or normothermic MP with blood (MP + blood group; 37 ℃; n=6) for 4 hours. After 2-hour ex vivo reperfusion, the assessment of endothelial-dependent (Edep) and -independent (Eind) relaxation of coronary artery, histopathological analysis, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay were performed.

RESULTS: Preservation of DCD hearts with MP + Blood strategy significantly improved both Edep and Eind vasorelaxation of coronary artery compared with MP + HTK strategy (maximum relaxation to bradykinin: MP + HTK 80.9%±2.6% vs. MP + Blood 91.9%±1.9%, P<0.001; maximum relaxation to sodium nitroprusside: MP + HTK 97.1%±1.0% vs. MP + Blood 99.8%±0.2%, P<0.05). MP + Blood strategy significantly decreased nitrotyrosine but increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity in the coronary artery. The number of TUNEL-positive cells in MP + Blood group were significantly fewer compared with MP + HTK group.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with MP + HTK strategy, MP + Blood strategy significantly alleviates coronary endothelial dysfunction during donor heart preservation. This protective effect is associated with the inhibition of apoptosis and nitro-oxidative stress in coronary artery.

PMID:32692200 | DOI:10.21037/apm-20-131

[Approval] Progress of Clinical Application for Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion (EVLP) in Lung Transplantation

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Methods Mol Biol. 2020;2204:217-224. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0904-0_19.

ABSTRACT

In recent years, medical advances make lung transplantation become a standard treatment for terminal lung diseases (such as emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary cystic fibrosis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension) that cannot be cured by drugs or surgery (Lund et al., J Heart Lung Transplant 34:1244, 2015). However, the current number of donor lungs that meet the transplant criteria is no longer sufficient for transplanting, causing some patients to die while waiting for a suitable lung. Current methods for improving the situation of shortage of lung transplant donors include the use of donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors, smoker donors, and Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion (EVLP). Among them, EVLP is a technique for extending lung preservation time and repairing lung injury in the field of lung transplantation. By continuously assessing and improving the function of marginal donor lungs, EVLP increases the number of lungs that meet the transplant criteria and, to some extent, alleviates the current situation of shortage of donor lungs. This chapter reviews the clinical application and research progress of EVLP in the field of lung transplantation.

PMID:32710328 | DOI:10.1007/978-1-0716-0904-0_19

[Approval] Uncontrolled Donation After Circulatory Death: A Unique Opportunity

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Transplantation. 2020 Aug;104(8):1542-1552. doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003139.

ABSTRACT

Uncontrolled donation after circulatory death (uDCD) refers to donation from persons who die following an unexpected and unsuccessfully resuscitated cardiac arrest. Despite the large potential for uDCD, programs of this kind only exist in a reduced number of countries with a limited activity. Barriers to uDCD are of a logistical and ethical-legal nature, as well as arising from the lack of confidence in the results of transplants from uDCD donors. The procedure needs to be designed to reduce and limit the impact of the prolonged warm ischemia inherent to the uDCD process, and to deal with the ethical issues that this practice poses: termination of advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation, extension of advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation beyond futility for organ preservation, moment to approach families to discuss donation opportunities, criteria for the determination of death, or the use of normothermic regional perfusion for the in situ preservation of organs. Although the incidence of primary nonfunction and delayed graft function is higher with organs obtained from uDCD donors, overall patient and graft survival is acceptable in kidney, liver, and lung transplantation, with a proper selection and management of both donors and recipients. Normothermic regional perfusion has shown to be critical to achieve optimal outcomes in uDCD kidney and liver transplantation. However, the role of ex situ preservation with machine perfusion is still to be elucidated. uDCD is a unique opportunity to improve patient access to transplantation therapies and to offer more patients the chance to donate organs after death, if this is consistent with their wishes and values.

PMID:32732830 | DOI:10.1097/TP.0000000000003139

[Approval] Ex vivo normothermic perfusion: a new preservation strategy for a donor heart with a myocardial bridge?

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Transpl Int. 2020 Nov;33(11):1555-1556. doi: 10.1111/tri.13707. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:32725724 | DOI:10.1111/tri.13707

[Approval] Hypothermic, oxygenated perfusion (HOPE) provides cardioprotection via succinate oxidation prior to normothermic perfusion in a rat model of donation after circulatory death (DCD)

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Am J Transplant. 2021 Mar;21(3):1003-1011. doi: 10.1111/ajt.16258. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

ABSTRACT

In donation after circulatory death (DCD), cardiac grafts are subjected to warm ischemia in situ, prior to a brief period of cold, static storage (CSS) at procurement, and ex situ, normothermic, machine perfusion (NMP) for transport and graft evaluation. Cold ischemia and normothermic reoxygenation during NMP could aggravate graft injury through continued accumulation and oxidation, respectively, of mitochondrial succinate, and the resultant oxidative stress. We hypothesized that replacing CSS with hypothermic, oxygenated perfusion (HOPE) could provide cardioprotection by reducing cardiac succinate levels before NMP. DCD was simulated in male Wistar rats. Following 21 minutes in situ ischemia, explanted hearts underwent 30 minutes hypothermic storage with 1 of the following: (1) CSS, (2) HOPE, (3) hypothermic deoxygenated perfusion (HNPE), or (4) HOPE + AA5 (succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor) followed by normothermic reperfusion to measure cardiac and metabolic recovery. After hypothermic storage, tissue ATP/ADP levels were higher and succinate concentration was lower in HOPE vs CSS, HNPE, and HOPE + AA5 hearts. After 60 minutes reperfusion, cardiac function was increased and cellular injury was decreased in HOPE compared with CSS, HNPE, and HOPE + AA5 hearts. HOPE provides improved cardioprotection via succinate oxidation prior to normothermic reperfusion compared with CSS, and therefore is a promising strategy for preservation of cardiac grafts obtained with DCD.

PMID:32786170 | DOI:10.1111/ajt.16258

[Approval] Comparing Donor Heart Assessment Strategies During Ex Situ Heart Perfusion to Better Estimate Posttransplant Cardiac Function

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Transplantation. 2020 Sep;104(9):1890-1898. doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003374.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ex situ heart perfusion (ESHP) limits ischemic periods and enables continuous monitoring of donated hearts; however, a validated assessment method to predict cardiac performance has yet to be established. We compare biventricular contractile and metabolic parameters measured during ESHP to determine the best evaluation strategy to estimate cardiac function following transplantation.

METHODS: Donor pigs were assigned to undergo beating-heart donation (n = 9) or donation after circulatory death (n = 8) induced by hypoxia. Hearts were preserved for 4 hours with ESHP while invasive and noninvasive (NI) biventricular contractile, and metabolic assessments were performed. Following transplantation, hearts were evaluated at 3 hours of reperfusion. Spearman correlation was used to determine the relationship between ESHP parameters and posttransplant function.

RESULTS: We performed 17 transplants; 14 successfully weaned from bypass (beating-heart donation versus donation after circulatory death; P = 0.580). Left ventricular invasive preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) (r = 0.770; P = 0.009), NI PRSW (r = 0.730; P = 0.001), and NI maximum elastance (r = 0.706; P = 0.002) strongly correlated with cardiac index (CI) following transplantation. Right ventricular NI PRSW moderately correlated to CI following transplantation (r = 0.688; P = 0.003). Lactate levels were weakly correlated with CI following transplantation (r = -0.495; P = 0.043). None of the echocardiography measurements correlated with cardiac function following transplantation.

CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular functional parameters, especially ventricular work and reserve, provided the best estimation of myocardial performance following transplantation. Furthermore, simple NI estimates of ventricular function proved useful in this setting. Right ventricular and metabolic measurements were limited in their ability to correlate with myocardial recovery. This emphasizes the need for an ESHP platform capable of assessing myocardial contractility and suggests that metabolic parameters alone do not provide a reliable evaluation.

PMID:32826843 | DOI:10.1097/TP.0000000000003374

[Approval] Antioxidant Solution in Combination with Angiotensin-(1-7) Provides Myocardial Protection in Langendorff-Perfused Rat Hearts

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Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 Jul 30;2020:2862631. doi: 10.1155/2020/2862631. eCollection 2020.

ABSTRACT

As progressive organ shortage in cardiac transplantation demands extension of donor criteria, effort is needed to optimize graft survival. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, generated during organ procurement, transplantation, and reperfusion, contribute to acute and late graft dysfunction. The combined application of diverse substances acting via different molecular pathways appears to be a reasonable approach to face the complex mechanism of ischemia reperfusion injury. Thus, an antioxidant solution containing α-ketoglutaric acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, N-acetyl-L-methionine, and N-acetyl-selenium-L-methionine was combined with endogenous angiotensin-(1-7). Its capacity of myocardial protection was investigated in isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts subjected to warm and cold ischemia. The physiological cardiac parameters were assessed throughout the experiments. Effects were evaluated via determination of the oxidative stress parameters malondialdehyde and carbonyl proteins as well as immunohistochemical and ultrastructural tissue analyses. It was shown that a combination of 20% (v/v) antioxidant solution and 220 pM angiotensin-(1-7) led to the best results with a preservation of heart tissue against oxidative stress and morphological alteration. Additionally, immediate cardiac recovery (after warm ischemia) and normal physiological performance (after cold ischemia) were recorded. Overall, the results of this study indicate substantial cardioprotection of the novel combination with promising prospective for future clinical use.

PMID:32802261 | PMC:PMC7415103 | DOI:10.1155/2020/2862631

[Approval] Non-ischemic Heart Preservation via Hypothermic Cardioplegic Perfusion Induces Immunodepletion of Donor Hearts Resulting in Diminished Graft Infiltration Following Transplantation

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Front Immunol. 2020 Jul 28;11:1621. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01621. eCollection 2020.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Many donor organs contain significant leukocyte reservoirs which upon transplantation activate recipient leukocytes to initiate acute rejection. We aimed to assess whether non-ischemic heart preservation via ex vivo perfusion promotes immunodepletion and alters the inflammatory status of the donor organ prior to transplantation. Methods: Isolated porcine hearts underwent ex vivo hypothermic, cardioplegic perfusion for 8 h. Leukocyte populations were quantified in left ventricle samples by flow cytometry. Cell-free DNA, cytokines, and chemokines were quantified in the perfusate. Tissue integrity was profiled by targeted proteomics and a histological assessment was performed. Heterotopic transplants comparing ex vivo hypothermic preservation and static cold storage were utilized to assess graft infiltration as a solid clinical endpoint. Results: Ex vivo perfusion significantly immunodepleted myocardial tissue. The perfusate displayed a selective, pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine pattern dominated by IFN-γ. The tissue molecular profile was improved following perfusion by diminished expression of nine pro-apoptotic and six ischemia-associated proteins. Histologically, no evidence of tissue damage was observed and cardiac troponin I was low throughout perfusion. Cell-free DNA was detected, the source of which may be necrotic/apoptotic leukocytes. Post-transplant graft infiltration was markedly reduced in terms of both leucocyte distribution and intensity of foci. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that ex vivo perfusion significantly reduced donor heart immunogenicity via loss of resident leukocytes. Despite the pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern observed, a pro-survival and reduced ischemia-related profile was observed, indicating an improvement in graft viability by perfusion. Diminished graft infiltration was observed in perfused hearts compared with those preserved by static cold storage following 48 h of transplantation.

PMID:32849549 | PMC:PMC7399062 | DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2020.01621

[Approval] Cold non-ischemic heart preservation with continuous perfusion prevents early graft failure in orthotopic pig-to-baboon xenotransplantation

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Xenotransplantation. 2021 Jan;28(1):e12636. doi: 10.1111/xen.12636. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Successful preclinical transplantations of porcine hearts into baboon recipients are required before commencing clinical trials. Despite years of research, over half of the orthotopic cardiac xenografts were lost during the first 48 hours after transplantation, primarily caused by perioperative cardiac xenograft dysfunction (PCXD). To decrease the rate of PCXD, we adopted a preservation technique of cold non-ischemic perfusion for our ongoing pig-to-baboon cardiac xenotransplantation project.

METHODS: Fourteen orthotopic cardiac xenotransplantation experiments were carried out with genetically modified juvenile pigs (GGTA1- KO/hCD46/hTBM) as donors and captive-bred baboons as recipients. Organ preservation was compared according to the two techniques applied: cold static ischemic cardioplegia (IC; n = 5) and cold non-ischemic continuous perfusion (CP; n = 9) with an oxygenated albumin-containing hyperoncotic cardioplegic solution containing nutrients, erythrocytes and hormones. Prior to surgery, we measured serum levels of preformed anti-non-Gal-antibodies. During surgery, hemodynamic parameters were monitored with transpulmonary thermodilution. Central venous blood gas analyses were taken at regular intervals to estimate oxygen extraction, as well as lactate production. After surgery, we measured troponine T and serum parameters of the recipient’s kidney, liver and coagulation functions.

RESULTS: In porcine grafts preserved with IC, we found significantly depressed systolic cardiac function after transplantation which did not recover despite increasing inotropic support. Postoperative oxygen extraction and lactate production were significantly increased. Troponin T, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase levels were pathologically high, whereas prothrombin ratios were abnormally low. In three of five IC experiments, PCXD developed within 24 hours. By contrast, all nine hearts preserved with CP retained fully preserved systolic function, none showed any signs of PCXD. Oxygen extraction was within normal ranges; serum lactate as well as parameters of organ functions were only mildly elevated. Preformed anti-non-Gal-antibodies were similar in recipients receiving grafts from either IC or CP preservation.

CONCLUSIONS: While standard ischemic cardioplegia solutions have been used with great success in human allotransplantation over many years, our data indicate that they are insufficient for preservation of porcine hearts transplanted into baboons: Ischemic storage caused severe impairment of cardiac function and decreased tissue oxygen supply, leading to multi-organ failure in more than half of the xenotransplantation experiments. In contrast, cold non-ischemic heart preservation with continuous perfusion reliably prevented early graft failure. Consistent survival in the perioperative phase is a prerequisite for preclinical long-term results after cardiac xenotransplantation.

PMID:32841431 | DOI:10.1111/xen.12636